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It is the most widespread cultivar in Apulia region, being present in the provinces of Lecce, Brindisi, Bari and Taranto.
Ogliarola salentina, the typical cultivar for oil production of Apulia region
According to De Robertis, Apulia records an important diffusion of olive cultivation from the beginning of the 5th century AD. It is no coincidence that Ambrogio Teodosio Macrobio between the 4th and 5th centuries, in the Saturnalia, mentions the name of the olive variety “Sallentina” among the 16 known varieties; while Columella in its 10 varieties does not mention Sallentina, but Calabrica, which could be a synonym, if we consider that Salento was called “Calabria” at that time. Finally, Giovanni Presta, a doctor and agronomist at the end of the 18th century, describes Ogliarola that “Since the most remote times it has always been the favorite, and the municipal one, so that the same must certainly be said, which from the Latins only be called Salentina.”
‘Cima di Mola’, ‘Cima di Monopoli’, ‘Chiarita’, ‘Mennella’, ‘Ogliarola di Lecce’, ‘Ogliarola’
The tree: it has a high vigour, an expansive habit and a medium-thick crown density.
The inflorescence: it has an average length and an average number of flowers with a compact structure.
The leaf: has an elliptical-lanceolate shape with an average length and width; the longitudinal curvature of the lamina is flat.
The fruit: it has a low weight, an ellipsoidal shape with a position of the maximum average transversal diameter placed centrally. The apex is pointed and the base truncated. The umbo is barely evident while the lenticels are numerous and small.
The flowering period of the Ogliarola salentina cultivar is late and of short duration (13 days); while the veraison period is medium and scalar.
The strengths of this cultivar are the early entry into production, the good productions in the vintages of charge and a high oil content. On the other hand, the negative aspects are given by the very low weight of the drupes and the gradual and late oiling.
The variety flowers at the same time as the cultivars: Cellina di Nardò and Nociara.
The cultivar is characterized by a low oleic acid content, around 72%, and a high palmitic acid content, so the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids is very low. The content in total phenols is medium-low, on average equal to 135 ppm (caffeic acid).
The oil has a medium fruitiness of olive and other fruit, light and persistent pungency, light bitterness with a pleasant hint of almond.
Ogliarola salentina, before Xylella fastidiosa, was present on an area of about 130,000 Ha, with a significant presence in various provinces. In the province of Lecce on an area of over 50,000 hectares, in the province of Brindisi on an area of 40,000 hectares, in the province of Bari on an area of approximately 25,000 hectares, while on over 10,000 hectares in the province of Taranto. Together with Cellina di Nardò, it is the main variety of the controlled denomination of origin DOP “Terra d’Otranto“.
DALENA P., Olivo e olio, in Id. (a cura di), Mezzogiorno rurale. Olio, vino e cereali nel Medioevo, Bari, Adda, 2010, pp. 15–121.
PRESTA G., Memoria intorno ai sessantadue saggi diversi di olio, 1786, Degli ulivi, delle ulive, e della maniera di cavar l’olio, del 1793.
Fonte iconografica: LOMBARDO N. et A.A. (a cura di), 2004, Contributo alla caratterizzazione del germoplasma olivicolo pugliese. Istituto Sperimentale per l’Olivicoltura. Rende (CS).
Professor Maria Lisa Clodoveo
Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine
University of Bari
Dr. Enzo Perri
Council for Agricultural Research and Economics (CREA)
Director of the CREA Olive, Fruit, and Citrus Research Center